##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

سید یاسر ضیایی مهدی تلبا

چکیده

اعتبارات اسنادی به دلیل ویژگی‌های خاص خود، رایج‌ترین روش پرداخت در معاملات بین‌المللی هستند. در نتیجۀ گشایش اعتبار اسنادی، بانک گشاینده به‌صورت غیر قابل برگشت در برابر ارائه اسناد شرط شده در مفاد اعتبار اسنادی، متعهد به پذیرش پرداخت می‌شود، اما این تعهد غیرقابل برگشت بانک که اطمینان کافی را برای خریدار و فروشنده ایجاد می‌کند، گاه به دلیل ایجاد فورس ماژور از بین می‌رود. در میان مصادیق فورس ماژور، تحریم‌های اقتصادی و به‌طور خاص تحریم‌های بانکی که در سال‌های اخیر علیه برخی کشورها و ازجمله جمهوری اسلامی ایران اعمال شده‌اند، از اهمیت فراوانی برخوردار هستند. تحریم بانکی که معمولاً شرایط اصلی فورس ماژور، یعنی خارجی بودن، غیرقابل پیش بینی بودن و غیرقابل اجتناب بودن را داراست، موجب رفع مسئولیت بانک در شرایط تحریم دولت و یا شرکت‌های متبوع دولت مورد تحریم می‌شود. درج شرط فورس ماژور یا شرط تحریم در قرارداد اعتبار اسنادی با بانک می‌تواند در مواردی که تردیدهایی در خصوص جایگاه حقوقی تحریم وجود دارد اطمینان لازم را به بانک گشاینده اعتبار اسنادی بدهد.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
[1] Abafat, R. (2007). Letter of Credits and It's Legal Nature in International Trade Law. Peik-e-Noor Journal, 4: 88-109. (In Persian)
[2] Adodo, Ebenezer O.I. (2005). An appraisal of the fraud exception and the principle of strict compliance in letters of credit; Singapore: Thesis, law national university of Singapore.
[3] Alizadeh, M. (2013). Step by Step by Letter of Credits. Javedaneh Publication. (In Persian)
[4] Amon and Wanlton (1976). "introduction to French law "; Oxford university press.
[5] Barry, Niklas (1992). The French Contract Law, 2ed, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
[6] Brindle, Michael (2014). law of bank payments; London: Sweet and Maxwell.
[7] Bund, Jennifer M (1998). Force majeure Clauses - Drafting Advice for the CISG Practitioner, Pace Institute of International Commercial Law.
[8] Butac, Geraldine, Galloway, Diana, Parson, Robert (2012). Sanctions Clauses - Safeguarding Payment under Letters Of Credit, http://www.reedsmith.com/en-US/Sanctions-Clauses---Safeguarding-payment-under-Letters-ofCredit-01-11-2012/.
[9] Carr, Indira (2010). International trade law; London and New York: Routledge-Cavendish.
[10] Collier, G. (2014). Comprehensive Report on Letter of Credits, Translated by Darvish Molla, J., Bank Sepah Publication. (In Persian)
[11] Corporate (2008). Documentary Credits – Documentary Collections Greater Security in International Trading; German, English and French: Credit Suisse.
[12] Dargahi, Borzou (2010). Clinton’s offer New Tactic in Iran sanctions, Los Angeles times published.
[13] Dau, Erin (1992). "economic sanctions imposed by the United states against specific countries": CRS report for congress.
[14] Davidson, Alan (2003). "Fraud, the Prime Exception to the Autonomy Principle in Letters of Credit"; International Trade & Business Law.
[15] Ebrahimi, S. N.; Oyar Hosein, Sh. (2012). Effects of Sanctions on Implication of International Commercial Contracts From Point of View of Force Majeure, Danesh-e-Hoghoogh-e-Madani Journal, 2. (In Persian)
[16] Hufbauer, Gary Clyde, Schott, Jeffrey J, Elliott, Kimberly Ann (1990). economic sanctions reconsidered: history and current policy, institute for international economics.
[17] Kausch, Hansg (1982). Boycott: Encyclopedia of public international law, Amsterdam, North Holland publishing Co.
[18] Kondoch, Boris (2001). the limits of economic sanctions under international law: the case of Iraq, Yearbook of International Peace Operations.
[19] Laria, E. T. (2006). Methods of Payment in Electronic Trade, Translated by Niasari, M. Hoghooghi Joutnal, 34. (In Persian)
[20] Lindstrom, Niklas (2006). «Changed Circumstances and Hardship in
International Sales of Good», Nordic Journal of Commercial Law.
[21] Mann, Ronald J. (2006). "the role of letters of credits in payment transactions"; Mlr Revised Galleys, Vol. 98.
[22] Nemati, N. (2009). Legitimacy of Sanction in International Law Emphasis on Unilateral Sanctions Against Iran, dissertation of M.A. for International law, University of Payam-e-Noor. (In Persian)
[23] Nikbakht, H. R. (1997). Force Majeure Effects and Withdrawing of Contracts, Hoghooghi Journal, 21. (In Persian)
[24] Oromieh Chi, A. A. (2001). Nature and Effects of Sanctions in International Law, dissertation of M.A. for International law, University of Azad- Central Tehran. (In Persian)
[25] Peter D Cameron (2006). Stabilisation in Investment Contracts and Changes of Rules in Host Countries: Tools for Oil & Gas Investors, Association of International Petroleum Negotiators (AIPN) Report, available at http://www.rmmlf.org/Istanbul/4-Stabilisation-Paper.pdf
[26] Rimke, Joern (2000). «Force Majeure and Hardship: Application in International Trade Practice with Specific Regard to the CISG and UNIDROIT Principle of International Commercial Contracts», Kluwer.
[27] Safaei, S. H. (1985). Force Majeure, hoghooghi Journal, 3. (In Persian)
[28] Schelin, johan (2004). letters of credit and "the doctrine of strict compliance": Thesis, university of Uppsala.
[29] Schwenzer, Ingeborg (2008). Force majeure and hardship in international sale contracts, University of Basel, VUWLR.
[30] Sharifi, S. E.; Safari, N. (2013). Comparing Hardship and Force Majeure in Commercial Contracts Principles, E.U. Contractual Law and Law of Iran, Pajoohesh Hoghoogh Tatbighi Journal, 2013, 4: 107-127. (In Persian)
[31] Sherlock, Jim, Reuvid, Jonathan (2008). The Handbook of International Trade a Guide to the Principles and Practice of Export: The Institute of Export.
[32] Shiravi, A. (2013). International Trade Law, Samt publication. (In Persian)
[33] Simma, B. (2015). Commentaries on United Nations Charter, Translated by Najandi Manesh, H., Khorsandi Publication. (In Persian)
[34] Smith, Damien (2014). sanctions disclaimers in letters of credit; Journal Of International Commercial Law; Vol. 5:2.
[35] Southerington, Tom (2001). Impossibility of Performance and Other Excuses in International Trade, Turkey, Faculty of Law of University of Turkey Private Law Publication.
[36] Tavassoli J., M., (2006). Factors of Precluding Responsibility of Contract in International Sale Convention and Comparative Law, Hoghoogh-va-Oloom Siasi Journal, 72. (In Persian)
[37] Tóth, Zsuzsanna (2006). Documentary credits in international commercial transaction with special focus on the fraud rule; Athens/Budapest: Pazmany Peter catholic university.
[38] UNIDROIT (1994). Principles of international commercial law contracts, Published by the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (Unidroit). Rome.
[39] Vakil, A. S., Tahsili, Z. (2013). Iran and International Sanctions, Majd Publication. (In Persian)
[40] Zarif, M. J.; Mirzaei, S. (1997). Unilateral Sanctions of America against Iran, Siasat Khareji Journal, 1. (In Persian)
[41] Ziaee, S. Y. (2012). Unilateral Sanction of Islamic Republic of Iran, Strategic Research Center Report. (In Persian)
[42] Zoghi, M. S. (2008). Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCP600). Otagh-e-Bazargani Publication. (In Persian)
ارجاع به مقاله
ضیاییس. ی., & تلبام. (2017). تأثیر تحریم بانکی به‌مثابه فورس ماژور بر نظام حقوقی گشایش اعتبار اسنادی. دانشنامه حقوق اقتصادی, 22(8), 124-145. https://doi.org/10.22067/le.v22i8.57063
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی