سید یاسر ضیایی مهدی تلبا


اعتبارات اسنادی به دلیل ویژگی‌های خاص خود، رایج‌ترین روش پرداخت در معاملات بین‌المللی هستند. در نتیجۀ گشایش اعتبار اسنادی، بانک گشاینده به‌صورت غیر قابل برگشت در برابر ارائه اسناد شرط شده در مفاد اعتبار اسنادی، متعهد به پذیرش پرداخت می‌شود، اما این تعهد غیرقابل برگشت بانک که اطمینان کافی را برای خریدار و فروشنده ایجاد می‌کند، گاه به دلیل ایجاد فورس ماژور از بین می‌رود. در میان مصادیق فورس ماژور، تحریم‌های اقتصادی و به‌طور خاص تحریم‌های بانکی که در سال‌های اخیر علیه برخی کشورها و ازجمله جمهوری اسلامی ایران اعمال شده‌اند، از اهمیت فراوانی برخوردار هستند. تحریم بانکی که معمولاً شرایط اصلی فورس ماژور، یعنی خارجی بودن، غیرقابل پیش بینی بودن و غیرقابل اجتناب بودن را داراست، موجب رفع مسئولیت بانک در شرایط تحریم دولت و یا شرکت‌های متبوع دولت مورد تحریم می‌شود. درج شرط فورس ماژور یا شرط تحریم در قرارداد اعتبار اسنادی با بانک می‌تواند در مواردی که تردیدهایی در خصوص جایگاه حقوقی تحریم وجود دارد اطمینان لازم را به بانک گشاینده اعتبار اسنادی بدهد.

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ارجاع به مقاله
ضیاییس. ی., & تلبام. (2017). تأثیر تحریم بانکی به‌مثابه فورس ماژور بر نظام حقوقی گشایش اعتبار اسنادی. دانشنامه حقوق اقتصادی, 22(8), 124-145. https://doi.org/10.22067/le.v22i8.57063
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی