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مجتبی زاهدیان رضا علی پور مهسا مشار موحد

چکیده

چنانچه هدف ‌نهایی شرکت‌های ‌تجاری را افزایش سود و هدف حقوق آن‌ها را صیانت از منافع گروه‌های ذی‌نفع شرکت بدانیم، باید به عللی که موجب خلل به این اهداف می‌گردد، توجه نمود. مسئله هزینه‌ نمایندگی به‌عنوان یکی از چالش‌های عمده در عصر توسعه جایگاه شرکت‌های‌تجاری، نگاه اقتصاددانان، فعالان این شرکت‌ها و حقوقدانان را به خویش معطوف ساخته است. مفهوم هزینه نمایندگی در قالب شرکت‌تجاری سبب آشکار شدن مسائل عمده در روابط داخلی و خارجی بازیگران فعال در آن حوزه می‌گردد. ازآنجاکه منافع سهامداران یا ذی‌نفعان (اصیلان) در گروی اعمال نمایندگان است، امکان سوءاستفاده ایشان از موقعیت خویش و ایجاد هزینه‌های گزاف بر دوش اصیلان بوده که با هدف بنیانی شرکت‌ها تعارض خواهد داشت. در بعد هنجارین از کارکردهای اصلی هر نظام حقوقی، ایجاد کارآمدی یا به تعبیری بیشینه ساختن ثروت در جامعه است؛ بدین‌صورت علم حقوق، با ارائه راهکارهای گوناگون از تمام ظرفیت‌های موجود در نظام حقوقی بهره‌برداری و قواعد حقوقی‌ را در راستای کنترل هزینه‌های نمایندگی تدوین نموده است. از چشم‌انداز اقتصادی کاهش سطح هزینه‌های مترتب بر استراتژی‌های مقابله با هزینه‌های نمایندگی از اولویت‌های نظام‌های حقوقی است. ازاین‌رو در فرض وجود هزینه‌های قابل‌توجه برای ایجاد هماهنگی میان اصیلان، قانون‌گذار با تجویز راهکارهای مقررات‌گذارانه، در مقام کاهش هزینه‌های نمایندگی گام برمی‌دارد؛ درحالی‌که در وضعیت‌هایی که بستر ایجاد هماهنگی میان اصیلان با هزینه‌ای نازل فراهم است، می‌توان از مکانیسم‌های درونی شرکت‌های تجاری در قالب استراتژی‌های حکمرانی و مدیریتی در راستای مهار هزینه‌های نمایندگی مدد جست.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
زاهدیانم., علی پورر., & مشار موحدم. (2018). راهکارهای حقوقی کاهش هزینه نمایندگی در شرکت‌های تجاری. دانشنامه حقوق اقتصادی, 24(12), 67-112. https://doi.org/10.22067/le.v24i12.63852
نوع مقاله
علمی پژوهشی